Overview Enlightenment Rationalism

HTH-511 Topic 5 Overview Enlightenment Rationalism (1700-1800) The Reformation changed Europe and ushered in the modern era. However, it also left Europe in a state of crisis. Out of this crisis emerged the Enlightenment. The crisis of the Enlightenment was the crisis of authority. The Reformation called into question the authority of the church by pointing to the authority of the Bible. However, as Protestant scholasticism showed, there were a number of ways to interpret the Bible. At the same time, the reformers invested the princes with authority. As Martin Luther argued in his “Appeal to the Nobility of the German Nation,” princes had the duty by God to protect the religion of their citizens. Because of the diversity of religion after the Reformation, the basic solution was to say that the official religion of the region was the religion of the individual who was in charge. Princes had a newfound power and they often appealed to their duty to ensure the integrity of their religion in order to justify the expansion of their domain. The modern nation state emerged as these rulers went to war to expand and define their jurisdiction. The numerous conflicts that arose as a result of the ambition of these princes were once called the European “Wars of Religion.” The notion that they were religiously motivated wars has now been debunked, but the reason why they were originally pitched as religious wars is important. Enlightenment philosophers attributed the bloody conflicts to religion and further argued that religion is inherently an unstable source for authority since so few of its claims can be agreed upon. This led to a cry for a new source of authority for modern society. If religion caused controversy and violence, they needed something other than religion as the source for societal organization and public policy. Here entered the rise of natural reason. For the new thinkers, “reason” was thought to be in innate to every human being. While religion needed to be cultivated through a culture and a church, every human was given reason at his or her birth. Hence the famous exhortation of Immanuel Kant to “think for yourself” in his essay “What is Enlightenment?” The hope was that since all humans were endowed with reason, all humans could agree on universal truth. Reason would be a more stable basis for society than religion. This put religion on its heels. From here forward, if religion were to have a role in society, it would have to prove its rationality. That is, it would have to prove itself a universal truth that every human could innately recognize. This led to the rise of Deism, which dramatically stripped religion of most of its specificity and claims to divine intervention. Later it led to two different forms of apologetics, empirical apologetics that sought to give historical or scientific proof of religious claims, and idealist apologetics that sought to argue from reason itself (e.g., presuppositional apologetics). © 2019. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved For this assignment you will select three of the six questions below. This assignment will be visible from the beginning of this topic and will be due to the instructor at the end of Topic 5. Each selected question must be answered with 700-800 words. Make sure to write as clearly and specifically as possible. Review and utilize any material and references from previous assignments in order to focus and maximize your answer. 1. Explain Martin Luther’s understanding of justification by faith against its late medieval context. 2. How did the Renaissance influence scriptural interpretation in such a way that it set up the Reformation? 3. Explain the Catholic Counter-Reformation and its agents. 4. Explain the theological shifts related to God’s will in late medieval nominalism and assess whether Luther and Calvin’s understanding of predestination was an outworking of those shifts. 5. Explain the differences among the four main branches of the Reformation: Lutheran, Anabaptist, Reformed, and Anglican. 6. Explain the Enlightenment understanding of reason and how reason becomes the basis for secular society. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the Turabian Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

#Overview #Enlightenment #Rationalism

Share This Post


Order a Similar Paper and get 15% Discount on your First Order

Related Questions

Code of conduct

 For this assignment, Write a paper about employee codes of conduct using information from your textbook and at least two other scholarly sources. First, research employee codes of ethics, especially for the medical field. Next, find some examples of employee codes of ethics from medical facilities and choose the one

Human Growth and Development

Scenario: Simon Whitaker is 42 years old and has suffered from mental illness since his late teens. He lives in a flat in a large housing estate. He lost his job as a warehouse cleaner after he was admitted to hospital the last time he became ill, two years ago.

Exporting Security

Write a 2 page argumentative essay on the links provided below. Link 1: https://www.airuniversity.af.edu/SSQ/Book-Reviews/Article/1292320/exporting-security-international-engagement-security-cooperation-and-the-changi/ Link 2:https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1049&context=nwc-review Link 3: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1049&context=nwc-review #Exporting #Security

Organizational culture and values

 Details: Prepare a 10-minute presentation (10-15 slides, not including title or reference slide) on organizational culture and values. Describe how alignment between the values of an organization and the values of the nurse impact nurse engagement and patient outcomes. Discuss how an individual can use effective communication techniques to overcome

M3D1: Big Data

The discussion will examine the social interaction of participants regarding an issue or situation and its impact on research data. This discussion addresses the following module outcomes: •MO1: Become familiar with the process of conducting marketing research methods and research tools •MO2: Review the process marketers use for identifying and

Case Study 1 and 2 Pneumonia and Addison diseases

Review the case study and answer all questions with a scholarly response using APA and include 2 scholarly references. Answer both case studies on the same document and upload 1 document to Moodle. Case Studies will be uploaded to Moodle and put through TURN-It-In (anti-Plagiarism program) Turn it in Score

(1) Principle of Clinical Equipoise & (2) Abortion and Infanticide

 Explain what is the Principle of Clinical Equipoise. What does it try to achieve? What are Miller and Brody’s criticisms of it. (2.5 pages) Warren holds that personhood occurs at some point later than birth, writing that “the infant is not instantly transformed into a person at the moment of

Should schools ban unhealthy snack machines?

 Your outline should include: An explanation of the controversial issue, why is it controversial? Identify which position or side you will take in your paper, and explain why. If you don’t agree with the position you are taking discuss how this could affect your argument on the topic. If you

The Outcome of Inequality of Wealth and Income

Research Topic: Submit an idea for a research study based on a business/economic problem. • Write the title of the study. • Explain your overarching aim for the study. • What is the problem? • What is the significance of it? • Draft at least two research questions. Due 1/27

Police Brutality In New York City

Police brutaly Research paper! it must be based in New York City History, Suggested sources- New York times and New York City Council and independent internet sources as well! at least 5 sources all together, 2 key topics related “Washington Heights Riots 1992 and other 1990’s case related! (Eric Garner-2014)

“practice of professional engineering”

1. “practice of professional engineering” means any act of planning, designing, composing, evaluating, advising, reporting, directing or supervising that requires the application of engineering principles and concerns the safeguarding of life, health, property, economic interests, the public welfare or the environment, or the managing of any such act; (“exercice de

Curriculum Development and Evaluation

 Learning Materials: Keating, S. B. (2011). Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. (Chapter 13) Books are on website Vital Source user name is sred9196@yahoo.com, the password is Bungalow9@ • Exercise #1: Address an educational need among nursing staff at a health care agency. In the

Epidemiology and Surveillance

Research the public health agency in Chicago, IL and develop a presentation on its structure, response capabilities, surveillance tools, and role in emergency management. In your response, include a description of the community served by the department (Chicago), its emergency response structure, surveillance systems that are used at hospitals, biohazard

Issues and Trends in Curriculum Development

 Learning Materials: • Iwasiw, C., Goldenberg, D., & Andrusyszyn, M. (2009). Curriculum development in nursing education (2nd ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett. (Chapters 13 and 14) • Keating, S. B. (2011). Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. (Chapters 16 and 17) PowerPoint • Chapter 13

Foundation of Nursing Module 2.1 ( Discussion)

Module 2.1 – Discussion Nursing Theories and Theorists Instructions: After reading the assigned chapters, please post two discussion questions based on the readings along with your answers to the following questions: Did any of the theories or theorist influence your own personal theory of nursing; and consequently, your own view

Flexible phone

 This is for Microeconomics class, and I am having hard time to figuring out. We use the book name, “ECONOMICS: Private and Public Choice” by James D. Gwartney. The direction that he gives on us are follwing: Select a publicly traded company on which to write your papers. For this

Define and discuss the difference between individual-focused theories

 For this assignment, your task is to respond to the following in an integrated essay format. Define and discuss the difference between individual-focused theories (Johnson and Holtzworth-Munroe batterer typologies, criminal justice model) and structural theories (feminist) of violence. Then choose at least 2 of the following questions to answer in